Fundamentals of Telecommunications + LAN & WAN Networking Training


TrainingCity has been delivering great hands on focused telecom training courses for almost two decades.  In all that time we've learned a thing or two about what "non-techie" folks need to know when they find themselves surrounded by technicians, programmers and engineers going on about "TCP/IP, Routers, PBX, T-1 trunks, ISDN PRI, LTE, and all the other wild acronyms.  If it seems like people are speaking a foreign language around you, we can help!  Join us for this up to date Telecommunications Training class!

What you will learn

You will spend five days with one of our top ranked telecommunications instructors.  We've been at this a long time and have taught folks from most of the major national carriers, many of the telecom equipment vendors, and countless enterprise IT/Telecom departments.  

You'll learn the basic concepts in a clear, easy to understand environment where questions are welcomed, and answers are ready.  You'll receive copies of our 451 page training manual filled with clear explanations of all the technical jargon, and as an added bonus, you will receive a FREE copy of the latest edition of Newton's Telecom Dictionary, a must have for every telecom professional!

Join us and learn from the experts.  We've been living and breathing telecommunications for almost two decades.  Our technical team has seen it all.  We've worked with almost everyone in the industry and can guide you in the right direction, right from the start!yes

Who Needs to Attend

This Telecom course is great for people new to the world of telephony and data communications.  Project managers, support staff, new technicians and programmers have all benefited from our core telecom training course.


No special technical skills are required to attend.  If you are interested in telecom and data networking and want to get up to speed, this class is for you.  We've found over the years that all sorts of folks can become telecom and LAN/WAN, wireless experts.  There is really no special academic background or special knowledge needed to get started, just an interest in this exciting and growing field.

Detailed Course Outline

Module One:  The Fundamentals of Telecommunications

We start with the Public Switched Telephone Network, or PSTN for short.  Learn how Plain Old Telephone Service started, why Analog circuits were all the rage in the beginning, and how Digital circuits such as T-1 & T-3 came to dominate trunking between Central Office switches. We'll carefully introduce all the buzzwords and jargon so don't worry, you can master telephony.  We'll explore the structure of the PSTN, including the role of the Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (ILECS) and their competitors. The role of Wireless Cellular carriers and their networks are explored and a basic "model" of the modern PSTN is developed.

  • Introduction to Telephony
  • The long, long history of telecommunications
  • The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN):  Where it came from, and where it's going
  • Who's in charge?  How is the PSTN standardized? We'll look at the groups such as the ITU that are responsible for ensuring telecommunications networks can work together all over the world.
  • Design requirements of the PSTN
  • PSTN equipment
  • What is a Central Office Switch?  What's the difference between a PBX and a Central Office Switch?
  • Connecting phone calls, real life examples
  • What's my number? The concept of "address space" in the PSTN and an introduction to the global dialing plan

Module Two: Signaling & Analog to Digital Conversion

  • Signaling.  We look at why signaling is an important part of the PSTN and explore signaling techniques including DTMF and Signaling System 7 (SS7)
  • ​Real Time, Full Duplex communications, why it was soooo hard to accomplish
  • The nature of sound waves, what we hear and what we speak.  Hint: Teenagers can hear up to 20,000Hz, if you are reading this course outline, you probably can't!crying
  • Analog Circuits:  They were easy to build, but not so effective for long distance transmission.  We'll explain what an Analog circuit is and how they work with lots of real world examples.
  • POTS: Plain Old Telephone Service
  • Analog to digital Conversion
  • A quick primer on data terms related to binary information: bits, Bytes, and bits per second explained.
  • Digital Circuits: Why it was so important to develop computer technology to convert Analog voice to digital transmission.
  • How Analog to Digital conversion works and a brief introduction to the world's most famous "codec": G.711
  • Examples of other codecs that can be used to convert analog voice to digital, or binary, format such as G.729, G.722, and other newer codecs
  • Digital codecs that support Video, introduction to H.263/H.264 / MPEG-4 standards

Module Three: Transmission Systems in Telecommunications

  • Analog vs digital circuits revisited
  • Multiplexing: Optimizing the utilization of wires and radio waves
  • FDM: Frequency Division Multiplexing
  • TDM: Time Division Multiplexing
  • Channelized FDM & channelized TDM
  • ​Development of TDM transmission standards
  • Digital Signal Zero DS0​, why is it 64 kbs? (hint: G.711 codec produces 64 kbs as it digitizes a single voice)
  • DS1 & DS3
  • T-1 & T-3
  • Full Duplex transmission requirements
  • Why ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network was developed
    • ISDN BRI: POTS replacement
    • ISDN PRI: T1 replacement
  • The development of Fiber Optic Cables in the 1990s
  • Optical wavelengths vs radio wavelengths, different frequencies, different medium
  • Wave Division Multiplexing & Dense Wave Division Multiplexing, WDM & DWDM
  • SONET Framing
  • OCx, OC12, OC48, OC192, OC768
  • Fiber to the Premise (FTTP, FTTH): PONs & OE
  • DSL & Cable Modems: Last Mile copper solutions
    • How modems operate
    • DSL: Digital Subscriber Line - utlizing the bandwith capabilites of POTs copper wire to accomplish FDM to the home.
    • How DSL works and its limitations.
    • The role of the DSLAM
    • VDSL2
    • Cable Modem standards, Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification, DOCSIS 3.1

Module Four: The Business of Telecom & Interconnect

We take a few moments to step back from learning the technology of telecommunications and data networking to understand what businesses are involved in the industry and how they interact with government regulators, their customers, and each other.  The purpose of this module is to give everyone a "big picture" view of how the telecom industry operates. This knowledge is extremely useful as it helps you understand how companies such as wireless carriers, local exchange carriers, and telecom equipment vendors all operate.

  • The two giants: AT&T & Verizon, From Divestiture to consolidation, the long strange journey of the regional carriers
  • Other regional and local carriers in the US
  • International carriers and national carriers overseas
  • Canadian Telecom landscape
  • How the PSTN Switching hierarchy was designed and why it was so important in its day
  • "Last Mile, copper vs fiber"  The competitive role of regional fiber optic cable "rings" another other topologies.  Understanding the CLEC vs ILEC
  • The wireless carriers, overview of the major cellular voice and data providers and a brief overview of the technologies deployed such as cellular voice services & LTE

Module Five: Wireless

Many people find wireless services extremely confusing.  We breakdown how wireless networks are deigned to operate and provide you with a clear understanding of the differences between the WiFi service offered at the local coffee shop and modern voice (cellular) and data networks that have come to dominate telecommunications in the 21st century.

  • Introduction to Wireless concepts
  • Radio transceivers, half duplex analog, and the limitation of distance
  • What are radio waves exactly?  The electromagnetic spectrum explained.
  • The important role of the FCC and how baby monitors changed the world!surprise
  • The first cellular networks and the technologies that made early Analog cell services possible
  • Why unencrypted analog cellular phones desperately needed an upgrade
  • The "second generation" digital cellular networks of the 1990s and an overview of their technology standards
  • The need for better digital data wireless services in the 1990s.  Digital Cellular for voice and digital cellular for (very slow!) data in the 90s & early 00's
  • FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDM all explained and lots of examples to help you understand how second generation digital wireless networks oice were designed
  • 3rd Generation Wireless: The focus begins to shift from voice to digital wireless data, but this is only the beginning!wink
  • 3G technology standards explained: UMTS, HSPA, 1X & more
  • 4G:  The modern era in wireless has arrived.  Understanding LTE & the other standards that were deployed including HSPA+, WiMAX / WiMAX 2 IEEE 802.16m,  
  • LTE + Simultaneous voice 
  • VoLTE:  The future of VoIP and LTE
  • LTE-Advanced
  • Satellites: what are the options & why couldn't they be used instead of terrestrial radio towers?
  • Wireless LANs
  • ​WiFi & the IEEE 802.11 standards, building modern WiFi networks
  • The future of WiFi 

Module Six: Data Networking LANs & WANs

​We begin module five with a transition from the world of modern telephony, to the concepts at the core of enterprise and carrier data networks.  These Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Array Networks (WANs) form the foundation for all modern IT departments.  In module five and beyond we build an understanding of key networking concepts and real world technologies that you will find at the heart of every business or government network.

  • What is "Data"?
  • The concept of Bandwidth
  • Decimal, Binary, & Hex, why we use different numbering systems in data communications
    • Examples of Dec / bin / Hex conversions
  • bits and Bytes
  • Representing information in binary formats, ASCII, Unicode & more
  • Network infrastructure
    • Copper wires
    • Fiber Optic Cables
    • Wireless radio frequencies
  • Data transmission options
  • How can we share the data network infrastruture
    • First In First Out (FIFO)
    • Break it into circuits
    • Use Packets to allow for "reasonable" sharing of the infrastructure: Hint - we use packets!
    • Packets vs Frames
  • Example of Ethernet addressing using MAC and IP addressing

Module Seven: Local Area Networks

In this module we get down to practical, real world examples of the technologies and equipment you will encounter in a modern corporate LAN

  • What is a Local Area Network?
  • Connecting laptops, desktops, tablets & more to company file servers, printers, storage servers & other essential services
  • Introduction to LAN equipment such as servers, Ethernet switches, routers, and firewalls
  • Role of Ethernet and TCP/IP in all modern LANs
  • Examples of real world technologies for LANs
    • Introduction to Ethernet
    • Ethernet cables, Cat 5, Cat 6, T-568B
    • Ethernet hubs, why they were replaced with Ethernet Switches

Module Eight: Understanding Networking Theory & Concepts

In module eight we take a step back from looking at real world LANs and examine the core theory concepts of how data networks are designed.  This module gives us a chance to build a critical set of skills that will make it easier to figure out how modern LANs and WANs operate and give us the skills we need to integrate future technologies into our networks.  In this module we start with an exploration of the OSI model.  The Open Systems Interconnect model provides a valuable framework for people to understand data networking concepts, and to quickly compare different networking technologies.  We explore what is meant by "Layer" and the purpose of each of the seven layers in the model.  We then compare the OSI model to "real world" standards such as Ethernet, TCP/IP, VoIP, and IPsec, SSL, TLS VPNs.

  • The OSI Model: Why it is important and how to remember the names of the seven layers
  • The seven layers explained.
  • Physical Layer, example IEEE 802.3
  • Data Link Layer: example MAC
  • Network Layer: example IP Addresses
  • Transport Layer: examples TCP / UDP
  • Session Layer: examples HTTP, SIP
  • Presentation Layer: examples codecs, ASCII
  • Application Layer: example HTML

Module Nine: Ethernet IEEE 802.x

  • Ethernet IEEE 802 (bonus info: committee first met in Feb 1980, hence "80" "02"wink) standards
  • Ethernet over Fiber Optic Cables
  • Wireless Ethernet, otherwise known as "WiFi"
  • Ethernet hubs vs switches
  • NIC
  • Ethernet addressing: MAC
  • 48 bit vs 63 bit address space
  • The Ethernet header
    • MAC Address
    • Type 
    • VLAN/Prioritization
  • ​​Ethernet Prioritization
  • VLAN explained

Module Ten: TCP/IP Fundamentals & the role Routers play in all modern LANs & WANs

  • How TCP/IP fits into the LAN picture
  • What is TCP/IP
  • IP Addresses, the key to all LANs (and WANs, and of course the largest WAN of all, The Internet!)surprise
  • IPv4 vs IPv6
  • Subnets
  • Private RFC 1918 address
  • IP routers: They are not as complicated as you think!  Just remember one simple sentence: "Routers route IP packets between IP subnets!"
  • Network Address Translation: NAT
  • Basics of DNS, DHCP & ICMP
  • The importance of TCP
  • TCP vs UDP, why do we need UDP?

Module Eleven: Wide Area Networks & Multi-Protocol Label Switching: MPLS

  • LAN distance limitations
  • TCP/IP crosses the LAN/WAN divide
  • The Router: shifting IP packets from one underlying Layer 1/2 technology to another
  • WAN technologies
  • ATM & Frame Relay
  • MPLS Overview
  • Understanding the relationship between MPLS & IP / Ethernet
  • MPLS Quality of Service, integration with DiffServ
  • MPLS for Service Integration
  • MPLS Traffic Aggregation

Module Twelve: Understanding The Internet

The Internet is the defining creation of our times.  It is built on the concepts we covered in this class.  The Internet is a collection of many individual WANs, built entirely on IP.  In this module we step back and explore the core concepts of The Internet and consider future developments.

  • The history of The Internet
  • The role of standards bodies such as the IETF and IANA
  • The creation of HTML and the World Wide Web
  • How the Domain Name System works
  • Overview of HTML & changes coming in HTML5
  • Introduction to Voice over IP
  • Virtual Private Networks: VPNs, IPsec & SSL VPN

Review & Wrap up.


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