TCP/IP Training Hands On Course with Ethernet

Overview

TCP/IP Training is essential to anyone who needs to understand that all modern LAN & WAN infrastructure shares one common deployment platform.  In this intense, hands on focused IP training seminar attendees develop their "IPv4" knowledge and skills.  From the latest developments at the last IETF biannual meeting, to understanding the principals of Subnetting and NAT operation, join us and learn TCP/IP the right way, with experienced instructors, hands on labs, and answers to your toughest LAN/WAN questions.  

The course includes an extensive review of IEEE 802.x/Ethernet v2 principals.  Attendees work with the WireShark protocol analyzer throughout the class to capture and analyse a vast array of Ethernet frames / IP packets.

What you will learn

When you finish this hands on focused TCP/IP fundamentals training course, your personal technical confidence will have increased, and you will better understand the underlying structure of all modern communications networks.  TCP/IP is everywhere, it is foundation on which we are building "The Internet of Things".  There is no easy way to master this essential topic, but in this class we give you the tools you will need to continue the journey for the rest of your career in high tech and  Information Technology.

  • Learn the fundamental elements of TCP/IP
  • Install and configure your own LAN in the classroom
  • You will understand how IPv4 addresses work and have a good overview of the changes coming with the IPv6 address space.
  • Really master Subnet concepts.  You will understand how a subnet architecture is designed for a large enterprise, using RFC 1918 addresses or public addresses.
  • Learn about all the "supporting" protocols such as ARP, DNS, ICMP, and DHCP.  Work directly with these protocols and "see them in action".
  • See how Ethernet IEEE 802.3 operates as the backbone of all modern LANs.  You will also get a brief glimpse of MPLS and see how we build WANs
  • Setup and configure routers.  See routers in a whole new light.  We explain and work with multi-router networks in the class so you can see Routing protocols such as OSPF & RIPv2 in operation.
  • Learn why we have TCP and UDP.  Understand port numbers, sockets, and how Network Address Translation really works (or doesn't, depending on your perspective!)
  • Setup and configure higher layer protocols such as HTTP, FTP, TFTP, SIP, Telnet, etc.
  • Use real world, open source, protocol analyzers that you can download to your own laptop and use at home after the class is over
  • Learn how to Troubleshooting modern TCP/IP networks 
  • Explore IT security and VPNs with SSL/TLS & IPSec.
  • Get a jump start on learning SIP, VoIP, IPv6 and much more!

Who Needs to Attend

A knowledge of TCP/IP is fast becoming a manditory requirement for everyone involved in Information Technology.  This TCP/IP training class is designed to get you up to speed on all the core concepts of IP that are so essential in virtually every aspect of modern enterprises and government organziations.  If you are involved in product design, carrier infrastructure deployments, or in technical support, this class will give you the foundation to continue to explore modern network technologies.

Prerequisites

No special prerequisites are needed to join the class.  Some introductory knowledge of basic networking would be helpful, but everything needed to develop your skills is covered through hands on labs, exercises and group work activities.  Students with more advanced TCP/IP skills will still find the class very worthwhile.  TCP/IP is a topic that one never truly masters.  It is a life-long persuit and one should see out any opportunity to build their knowledge of this essential component of all modern networks. 

Detailed Course Outline

Module 1: Basic Networking Concepts

  • introduction and installation of Wireshark Protocol Analyzer
  • Concept of Information Exchange.  Why Packets?
  • Nature of transmission efficiency in networking:
    • FIFO
    • Circuit
    • Packet
  • Introduction to the OSI Model in a Real World context
  • The role of the IETF in defining TCP/IP standards
    • Who is the IETF and what do they do?
    • The standards process and RFC documents
    • Overview of www.ITEF.org website
  • Introduction to TCP/IP Operations
    • Basic Packet Structure explained: Data/FTP/TCP/IPv4/Layer 2
    • Layer 2 integration concept explored
    • LAN & WAN:
    • Definitions and Overview
    • Components and technologies
  • Ethernet / IEEE 802 series of standards Overview    
    • Concept of Ethernet MAC Addresses
    • Ethernet Equipment
    • The NIC & MAC assignments
    • From Ethernet Hub to Ethernet Switch
    • “How an Ethernet Switch Works”
    • Concept of PoE
    • Concept of VLAN
  • The role of TCP/IP
    • “Ethernet + TCP/IP” in the LAN
    • Extending to the WAN, why TCP/IP is needed?
    • Introduction to the role of the Router
  • Core Concepts of Hex & Binary Numbering Systems
    • Demo 1.1 Using the Windows Calculator in Scientific Mode for Hex – Dec – Bin conversions
    • Why Hex is important.  The concept of two Hex numbers equals a Byte
    • Usage in Ethernet MAC
    • Future IPv6 Addressing Format Requirements
    • (Note: a deeper understanding of Hex is required for IPv6 Skill development)
  • Lab 1.0: Setup physical configuration of Ethernet switches, Cat 5/6 cabling.
  • Lab 1.1: Demo of Network Config settings & useful tools in Win/Linux OS for basic TCP/IP Networking.
  • Lab 1.2: Install Wireshark Protocol Analyzer.  Wireshark Operational Tutorial and Demo
  • Lab 1.3: Networking Standards:  Visit websites for IEEE, IETF, IANA, & ITU.  Various website “treasure hunt” exercises.
  • LAB 1.4:  Understanding Numbering Systems & using the Windows calculator to convert from Dec/BIN/HEX.

Module 2: Understanding IP Addressing

We begin Module 2 with a specific goal, to understand IP Addressing.  The larger understanding of how IP operates, and the fields that make up the IPv4 header will come in later modules.  The first step is the gain a solid, hands on, understanding of how IPv4 Addressing & Subnetting actually works with Classless Interdomain Routing, otherwise known as "CLIR".  Don't worry, Subnetting with be "CLIR as mud!" when you finish the exercises in this module!  (Kidding, it will be clearer than "mud"!)

  • Intro to IPv4 Addressing & Subnet masks
  • IPv4 Address – Binary vs. decimal notation
  • RFC 1918 Private address space defined
    • 10.x
    • 172.16.x - 172.31.x
    • 192.168.x
  • Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
  • Network & Host fields
  • Subnet & Subnet masks
  • Capture and analyze an IP datagram
  • Lab 2.1: Create IP subnets for enterprise LAN and WAN
  • Lab 2.2: Identify subnet values for current PCs in the classroom
  • Lab 2.3 Calculate IP Addressing numbering and subnetting plan for various enterprises from small to global scale.

Module 3: Internet Protocol

  • Overview of Internet Protocol IPv4 header structure
  • Version field
  • Header length, why is it needed in IPv4 but removed from IPv6?
  • Differentiated Service Field
    • We take an introductory look at the "DiffServ" field and explore the concept of packet prioritization.  This topic is explored in detail later in the class, including lab setup with routers that prioritize IP packets
  • Total Length:  What does this mean exactly? Why is it important for IP, and what does it say about the concept of "Layers" that we explored in the OSI model? Hint:  Attend the class to find out... and tell the instructor you actually read the entire course outline for bonus points, and a free cookie: the real kind :)
  • IP Fragmentation:
    • What is IP fragmentation and why is it soooo terrible?
      • We explore the three IP header fields dedicated to supporting fragmentation in IPv4 and discuss why it was needed in earlier decades.
      • Identification:  Topic explored, question, why can't we just use TCP's SYN and ACK?  What is the point of having this header field?  Hint: Think about fragmentation and the OSI  model "Layers" concept.
      • Flags explained in context of IPv4 fragmentation
      • Fragment Offset
  • Loop Avoidance in IP networks
    • We explore the topic of "loops" in data networking and examine the long history of proposed solutions to deal with loops.  Why for example do we need a solution in Ethernet (Spanning Tree Algorithm) AND a solution in the IP header called "Time to Live" or TTL for short?  The topic gets even more complex when you start to think about other layers such as SIP that include a loop avoidance solution, in that case called "max-forwards".  Don't worry, all will be explained, grasshopper.
  • In this section we use Wireshark® to capture and display a variety of IPv4 packets.  Wireshark® offers an assortment of IP related capture and troubleshooting tools that will be explored.  IP header fields are examined, including the Time to Live, version, protocol, and of course the IP address fields.  With all TCP/IP captures, we examine the relationship between the header displays and their associated Hex/bin display options.
    • Observe IP unicast and multicast IPv4 and IPv6 traffic
    • Filter by source & destination IP addresses
    • Capture IPv4 traffic with various capture and display filters enabled
  • Lab 3.1: Capture and analyze Ethernet frames and IP packets
  • lab 3.2: IP Header Field comparisions for various LAN captures

Module 4: Core Operational Protocols

  • ARP:  Address Resolution Protocol
    • How do you relate an IP address to an Ethernet MAC address? ARP! Learn how ARP works and why running ARP direclty over Ethernet is not really a great idea anymore.
    • See ARP messages in action.  Observe what happens when a device needs to find the MAC address of the Router.
  • Domain Name System
    • Basic Operation
    • Record Types: A Record, MX, SRV, & AAAA
    • Capture DNS Traffic in Wireshark
  • DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
    • DHCP deployment considerations
    • Basics of Protocol options
    • Capture bootp traffic
  • ICMPv4
    • Basic ICMP Operation
    • Types and uses of ICMP
      • Ping & MTU exceeded messages
      • ICMP Echo (Type 8) and Response (Type 0)
      • Use in Trace route Tracert
      • The dreaded Type 11!
  • Firewall traversal
  • Lab 4.2: Using IP config tools including arp-a, ipconfig, netstat, etc.
  • Lab 4.3: View DHCP information & setup packets in Wireshark
  • Lab 4.4: Capture ARP & ICMP packets on LAN using PING
  • Lab 4.5: Setup and configure a DHCP server
  • Lab 4.6: Capture and analyze DHCP discovery and offer process
  • Lab 4.7: Configure BIND9 DNS server settings
  • Lab 4.8: DNS Capture and Analysis
    • Capture A Records, MX Records, SRV Records
  • Lab 4.9: ICMP Analysis: Capture and analyze ICMP messages of various types

Module 5: Routing Fundamentals

Many people find routers intimidating when the begin studying TCP/IP.  Routing theory does get complex, but understanding the core operation of a router does not need to be too overwhelming.  To start with, try to remember this one phrase: “Routing IP Packets Between IP Subnets!”

  • What is a Router?  Why are they useful in IP Networking?
  • The requirement for Routing
  • Static Routing Tables vs Dynamic Routing
  • The need for Routing Protocols to share route information
  • Overview of the protocols and standards deployed
    • EIGRP
    • IS-IS
    • BGP
    • OSPF
    • RIP
  • Lab 5.1: Design LAN+WAN for sample enterprise to create routed network
  • Lab 5.2: Create subnets on LAN and trace IP traffic from one subnet to another
  • Lab 5.3: View and modify entries in the routing table
  • Lab 5.4: Create WAN using lab supplied routers
    • Capture RIPv2 traffic flowing between Routers

Module 6: TCP & UDP plus NAT Operation

Transmission Control Protocol & User Datagram Protocol, why have both?  This question always comes up in class when attendees start studying the operation of TCP and UDP.  Both use something called "Ports" and both pass the data to IP.  So why two options?  Well, attend the class and pay attention in Module 4 for the answer!  (or ask a question in the TrainingCity Forums)

Finally, in this module we examine the operation of the NAT in detail.  The understand NATs we really need to understand the TCP & UDP Port numbers and the concept of a "Socket".

  • Introduction to Transmission Control Protocol & User Datagram Protocol
    • TCP/UDP layer
    • General Overview of TCP & UDP
    • Connection vs. Connection less communications
    • Capture TCP & UDP headers in Wireshark
  • Port Numbers
    • Visit IANA Website to explore Port Number Assignments
    • Concept of a Socket Defined
  • The TCP Header
    • Examine all fields in the TCP Header
    • Source & Destination Port Numbers
    • Sequence and Acknowledgement numbers
    • TCP Header length - Compare to IP header length, why do we need these fields in the headers?
    • The TCP flags
    • Sliding Windows
    • Options field
    • Maximum Segment Size
  • TCP Operation
    • The Three way handshake
    • Byte Sequencing
    • Window Based Flow Control
    • SACK
    • Congestion Control in TCP networks
    • The FIN process
  • UDP Operation
    • Rational for use in DNS Query
  • Understanding Network Address Translation
    • History of NAT
    • Types of NAT design over the years
    • Implementation of modern NATs
    • NAT Operation examples and case studies
  • Lab 6.1: Filtering TCP Traffic in Wireshark
  • Lab 6.2: Capture HTTP/TCP Traffic.  Review 3 way handshake and SACK operations
  • Lab 6.3: Capture DNS/UDP Traffic.  Explore variations in TCP & UDP Header fields
  • Lab 6.4: Setup, configure and troubleshoot NAT operations

Module 7: Application Protocols

  • Exploring the core operational mode of Applications
    • HTTP METHODS
      • Request / Response architectureAdd Word
      • List of METHODS
      • Response codes, 200OK, 404, 301, 302, etc
  • Primarily TCP Applications explored
    • HTTP / World Wide Web
  • E-mail: SMTP, POP3, MIME.
  • Internet applications: PING, TraceRT
  • FTP: File Transfer Protocol
    • How does FTP operate?
    • Setting up an FTP Server
  • Primarily UDP based Applications
    • TFTP
    • RTP/RTCP
    • SNMP
    • The Structure of Management Information (MIBs)
  • Lab 7.1: Basic configuration of a LAMP server running in Centos Linux with Webmin UI.
    • Capture HTTP traffice at Server and Client devices for analysis
    • View complete HTTP session
    • Observe file(s) download and file(s) display
  • Lab 7.2: Configure VSFTP Server in Centos
    • Capture FTP traffic at server and client for analysis
  • Lab 7.3: Configure Postfix mail Server in Centos
    • Capture POP3 & IMAP4 traffic for Analysis
  • Lab 7.4: Creating a TFTP Session
  • Lab 7.5: Multicasting UDP

Module 8: IP Packet Prioritization: QoS Protocols

  • Quality of Service defined
    • Concept of Class of Service: COS
  • Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)
  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
  • Lab 8.1: Analyze DiffServ markings in RTP packets
  • Lab 8.2: RSVP Traffic Capture Demo
  • Lab 8.3: MPLS Traffic Capture Demo

Module 9:  IP Security & Virtual Private Networks - VPN

  • What is network security?  What is the role played by Ethernet & TCP/IP in security?
  • The C-I-A  triad
  • Understanding Threat Analysis
    • What is a network based threat?
    • Attack vectors
    • What is Malicious about code?  Plenty.
  • Lab 9.1: Exploring the darkside - Where do the hackers hide?  (Note:  Only hardened TrainingCity devices may be used during this lab as various malicious sites and services may be encountered on The Internet)
  • Securing the infrastructure
    • The weakest link (hint, it's that guy over there...)
    • Securing Ethernet
    • IP & Packet based solutions
  • Defining "Information Technology" theory:
    • Information Authentication
      • Authentication in IP networks
    • Information Transmission
      • Understanding why Encryption is needed only for Transmission, not Authentication
    • IETF Authentication Algorithms:
      • You can understand this stuff, yes it's rocket science, but there is a way to get it straight
      • Overview of the primary Authentication Algorithms in current widespread usage
        • The concept of Hashing explained
        • Examples using standardized solutions such as Message Digest 5 (MD5), others
    • IETF Encryption Approaches
      • Overview of Encryption Algorithms in current widespread usage
      • Synchronous vs Asynchronous encryption algorithms
      • Examples using standardized IETF encryption solutions such as AES & Diffie Hellman / RSA
    • Building a VPN
      • What can you accomplish with TCP/IP VPN based solutions?
      • What is the best layer to implement a VPN?
      • Solutions:
      • What is IPSec?
      • What is SSL/TLS?
      • Layer 3 VPN using IPsec
        • IPSec Authentication approach
        • IPSec Encryption approach
      • Layer 4+ VPN using SSL/TLS
        • Authentication in Transport layer Security
        • Encryption in Transport Layer Security
      • Lab 9.3  Building your own Secure Solution
        • In this lab students work in small groups to solve an enterprise secure infrastructure "case study"
      • Lab 9.2:  Building an IPSec VPN
      • Lab 9.3: Building an SSL VPN
      • Lab 9.4: Securing HTTPS & SIPS

Module 10: Introduction to IPv6

  • ​​Introduction to IPv6
  • Now that you really understand IPv4 is it pretty easy to start to see why it needs improvements
  • The address space, what 128 bits?  Think of it "two" (64 bits and 64 bits) numbers
    • The types of IPv6 addresses
    • What the heck is this Link Local IPv6 address I keep seeing in Windows cmd prompt?
    • IANA global IPv6 address assignment strategy
    • Current trends in ISP IPv6 address assignments
    • Lab 10.1:  Setup and configure IPv6 on LAN interface
    • Lab 10.2: Basic Home Router IP6 setup using latest ASUS / Netgear home routers 
  • ARP is dead, long live ICMPv6!
    • ​Why ARP had to go, and why ICMP types are a better solution (hint:  Capture ARP packets in Wireshark®, how can you (you can't) secure ARP with IPSec or TLS?
  • The role of ICMPv6
    • Neighbor Solicitation
    • Neighbor Advertisement
    • Router Solicitation
    • Router Advertisement
    • Packet too big, time exceeded, Destination unreachable, etc.
  • DNS in IPv6
    • The AAAA Record
    • Lab 10.3: Using protocol analyzer, capture DNS traffic that contains AAAA records.  Question, can a DNS query or response associated with a AAAA record be carried over IPv4?  Stay tuned to find out!
  • Routing with IPv6
    • Introduction to IPv6 Routing considerations
    • RIPng
    • OSPFv3
    • MP-BGP
    • EIGRP for IPv6

Module 11:  Introduction to VoIP & SIP

  • In this module we take an introductory look at how Voice Over IP and its associated signaling protocol, Session Initiation Protocol operate
  • What is VoIP, does it include video or just voice?
  • How long has this been going on?  20+ years, your kidding!
  • The basic concepts
    • VoIP Equipment
      • IP PBX
      • PSTN/VoIP Gateways
      • IP Phones
      • Session Border Controllers
  • Codecs
    • Digitizing your voice using codecs
    • G.711 MU-Law and A-Law
    • G.729
    • Modern IETF supported audio codecs
  • Building VoIP packets
    • Real Time Protocol: RTP and RTCP
    • Adding codec voice to the RTP payload
    • Why use UDP?
  • Signaling with SIP, everything else is a waste of time!
    • Not exactly true, but who is reading this anyway?
    • We look at the history of signaling protocols including, of course, SIP, but also H.323, IAX2, and MGCP, MEGACO/H.248
  • Lab 11.1:  Building a VoIP system
    • Students configure a Linux based IP PBX and use a protocol analyzer to capture RTP & SIP traffic
  • Lab 11.2: Capture a basic VoIP Call
    • Using the protocol analyzer, capture a complete VoIP call and reassemble G.711/RTP packets 

Conclusion & Wrap UP

  • Final Student group Troubleshooting assignment
    • Instructor will assign a real world TCP/IP troubleshooting problem to the student teams.

 

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